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LKFF2019 INTERVIEWS:


 

Shim Hye-jung

Introduction:
Throughout her career, director Shim Hye-jung has mainly focused on performance and film work. Her experimental films have been Lost Voices (VR, 2017), Carnival (2016), Searching for NasiGoreng (2016) and Dancing Hunter & Rabbit (2014). She also directed a documentary in 2013, The Camel and The Arab, while her film dramas include Kimchi (2012), Heels Over Head (2015) and Camellias in Bloom (2016). Her various shorts have been presented in the Seoul International New Media Festival, the Jeonju International Film Festival, the Seoul Independent Film Festival, among others, and Camellias in Bloom was nominated for the short film competition in The 38th Blue Dragon Awards. Shim Hye-jung's debut feature film is social drama A Bedsore (2019) which, at the time of writing this introduction, is making its way around the international film festival circuit.

The following director group interview took place on 8 November 2019 as part of the 2019 London Korean Film Festival:

Interview:

Hangul Celluloid: If I could start by asking what your motivations were in using a story about an elderly couple, their family and their carer as the subject matter for you debut feature A Bedsore - social, personal or simply cinematic?

Shim Hye-jung:
My motivations were both personal and based on social issues. People of my age often speak about caring for the elderly and the family conflicts that often come from that. As I was writing the script for A Bedsore there was a lot of talk about social immobility taking place in Korea - it's quite similar to here if you think of the metaphor of the gold spoon etc. In Korea it's becoming increasingly difficult, some might say impossible, to move between classes. It has become much more stigmatised and it is just like a bedsore - it's just kind of stuck there - and that was really where the story came from.


Asian Movie Pulse:
Could you tell us more about the character of the carer in A Bedsore? She is quite controversial in a way being an illegal immigrant and being from a different area, not exactly Korea, so what were your thoughts when you were first including her in the story?

Shim Hye-jung:
Actually, my mum was ill for a while and had to be cared for by helpers and a lot of that type of work is done by Korean-Chinese groups. It used to be about 80% Korean and 20% Korean-Chinese people doing these jobs but now it's virtually reversed and it's kind of become a phenomenon. It's such a low paid job but there is such a need to understand Korean culture to do the work effectively that Korean-Chinese have become the vast majority of those doing domestic and caring help.


FilmDoo:
I think A Bedsore presents a very interesting perspective on modern families, like the way a character has to move away from her family to support them, another character having moved to the US and the elderly couple's children overall appearing to be in their own world, caught up in their own lives and self-interests. I wondered, do you feel your films gives quite a despondent view of the modern family unit; is the family unit falling apart?  

Shim Hye-jung:
Korea has long presented a strong picture of traditional society and I feel that we are approaching the end of that now. I think often  with old traditions when it reaches its end it in a way reveals its essence and I think that's what is happening now. I very interested in how the old traditionalism remains and how it carries certain meanings about society so that's why and how I presented the issues.


Screen Queens:
There is an American film about an undocumented Filipino woman working as a carer for a Russian woman in trans-America. Why do you feel the role of care-givers is appealing to film-makers around the world at this time?

Shim Hye-jung:
I think there are a lot of migrant workers in Koreas but there aren't enough stories about them. Care-giving is such an intimate job - you are right inside a person's home - and that means they are really deep within society as well. But I don't think it is discussed enough and though there have been some stories about migrant workers in Jeju, for example, it's not portrayed a 'everyday'. I feel this is a major social issue that shouldn't be considered as sensational but far more commonplace and I'm interested in the psychology of the Korean people and how they perceive these migrant workers.


Hangul Celluloid:
Having personally dealt with elderly bedridden relatives, bedsores and indeed discussions of home or institutionalised care, A Bedsore hit me powerfully. While the film is specifically Korean, from my point of view its issues are global. As the film began being screened internationally were you nervous about ho foreign audiences would relate to the narrative or were you confident that the issues covered are universally relatable and relevant?

Shim Hye-jung:
From my understanding, Europe has much better care and support for the elderly than Korea and what I was curious about when I was making A Bedsore was whether foreign audiences would perhaps be curious as to why that care in Korea is the whole responsibility of families. I thought that aspect might be very specific to Korea but the idea of family conflicts, competition between siblings etc. I was fairly confident would be universally accepted.


Asian Movie Pulse:
I think it is very interesting that you see the film as very Korean because to me it felt very feminist. I first saw the film in Seoul and I instantly noticed that the female characters are so strong and the pressures on women in terms of the responsibility of elderly care. What are your thoughts on that?

Shim Hye-jung:
All my short stories have women as the main protagonists. In A Bedsore the elderly man, Chang-sik, is the main protagonist but I think I'm ultimately more interested in minor characters whether they are women, elderly or migrant workers. I also like the idea of strong survivors who work very hard and the main female character in my film has a real presence and energy that I really wanted to portray.


FilmDoo:
The carer in A Bedsore feels she needs to get married to stay in the country and the father of the family even offers to divorce his wife to keep her there. I wanted to get your perspective on that. Do you perhaps feel that marriage is becoming outdated as an institution in Korea?

Shim Hye-jung:
That's a bit of a complex situation. If you remember just before the two decide to get married they have a discussion the different approaches to marriage - the fact that both are married already, etc. and with that I wanted to show that the understanding of marriage is becoming much more flexible.


Eastern Kicks:
This is your debut feature film. Were there any particular challenges you faced while making it?

Shim Hye-jung:
Yes, when I made short films I could see the whole outline very easily, but with a longer feature film there are different ways to think about the structure, there are many more scenes and as you put the together you can't easily see how they will ultimately work. So, finding the structure for the whole film was certainly challenging. Also, I couldn't find one sole investor to finance the entire film so I had to use a number of different sources so I had to spend a lot of time doing that rather than actually getting on with making the film.


Asian Movie Pulse:
Where did the money come from?

Shim Hye-jung:
The funding ultimately came from the Seoul Media Film Committee and the Jeonju Project Market.


Screen Queens:
Because the subject matter of A Bedsore is so personal, as has been discussed, I wondered how the actors approached their roles, as the film is so psychological.

Shim Hye-jung:
All the actors in my films come from theatre. I don't know how other directors work but I talked to the cast members a lot, we read the script together and we spent a lot of time preparing for shooting. I had a limited budget so I couldn't do much during the shoot which made the need for a lot of prep work beforehand even greater. British film-maker Mike Leigh is someone I really admire and I know he works a lot with theatre actors. I find the way he creates characters quite amazing so I studied how he works with actors a lot and having a growing understanding of his process gave me confidence in the cast giving what was needed by my film.  


Hangul Celluloid:
I am obsessed with independent Korean cinema and the difficulties it has when put up against big budget commercial blockbusters, many of the latter screening in a huge number of cinemas shutting out those independents in the process. You have already spoken of the financial difficulties you faced when making A Bedsore but you are also not only an independent film-maker but also both a female director working in a still predominately male dominated industry and indeed a debut feature director. Would you say the main problems you faced came from your position as a debut feature film-maker, as a female director or indeed because you film was an independent production?

Shim Hye-jung:
There is another factor: I am not young [Shim Hye-jung laughs]. Korea is a society that takes age very seriously - age is a very important factor in all walks of life. If you are successful then the fact that you are old is something to be celebrated but if you're not then being old comes across as somewhat of a problem. I'm only a first-time director so I can't really comment on the entire film industry but based on my own experiences and conversations I've had with my cohorts, Korea society doesn't respect diversity as much as it should. Capital is just taken for granted and what is seen as competent is rarely questioned. So people just say to just make a well made film or just make well attended films and all of the other nuances are not necessarily appreciated. This sort of score-based culture is something that everyone seems to desire. I've heard the screen quota might be brought back in Korea so that might help boost independent cinema but I still think many of these aspects really need to improve to give independent cinema a real fighting chance.


Asian Movie Pulse:
Many directors that I've spoken to in Korea have talked about their desire to have theatrical movies and successful theatrical releases. Does that appeal to you too and what are your goals as a director, especially having come to making features at a later age?

Shim Hye-jung:
I'm not so sure that having my film theatrically released is really the most important thing but I do think a lot about how to meet audiences with my films. Now that I have made a feature I can start to think about having it screened theatrically but when I've made short films that hasn't been a possibility. So, where to show it and how to meet who is something I'm now thinking more about.   


FilmDoo:
What is next for you? What will your next project be?

Shim Hye-jung: Yes, I'm already working on my next project. We just bought the rights to adapt a novella called Flower Out of Mould so I'm going to be adapting that into a new feature film.


Eastern Kicks:
You've talked about using theatre actors in A Bedsore. Was that also the case in your short films?

Shim Hye-jung:
Yes, I always use theatre actors. I do like going to the theatre and I really don't like the auditioning process - I don't trust myself in that process - so I cast actors from seeing them in theatre or TV. I guess |I monitor some actors with my films in mind.


Hangul Celluloid:
We've got the story of A Bedsore and within that, of course, the bedsore in question stands as an allegory of societal ills in Korea. Which came first? Did you have the family drama and later added the idea and theme of the bedsore or did you first think of societal ills as a kind of a bedsore and try to shape the story around that?   

Shim Hye-jung:
It was pretty much simultaneous. I wanted to tell a story about the elderly and familial relationships and difficulties but at the same time I thought the idea of a bedsore could be amazing as a symbolic sort of metaphor, I suppose, so both appeared at kind of the same time allowing me to focus on both from the outset.

 

On behalf of everyone involved, I'd sincerely like to thank the London Korean Film Festival and the Korean Cultural Centre UK for allowing us all to interview director Shim Hye-jung at such length.


 

 

 


 

Lee Byeong-hyeon

Introduction:
Lee Byeong-hyeon began his career in 2009 as a script editor on Kang Hyoung-chul’s hit comedy 'Scandal Makers', making his directorial debut that year with the short film 'Smell'. His writing credits include 'Sunny', 'Tazza - The Hidden Card' and 'Love Forecast' and his directorial debut came in 2012 with 'Cheer Up, Mr. Lee'. This was soon followed by 'Twenty' (2014), 'Be Positive' (2016) and 'What a Man Wants' (2017) (all box office successes) but it was his 2019 word-of-mouth sensation, Extreme Job, that truly defied all the odds to become the second most successful movie ever in the Korean market.

The following group interview took place at the KCCUK in London on 6 November 2019, prior to the London Korean Film Festival screening of 'Extreme Job' and Q&A with the director:

Interview:

View of the Arts: In your films you always have fantastic female characters, in Extreme Job especially with Detective Jang and Seon-hee. They are such badasses and so cool I want to know how do you, in the writing process, ensure you have such great female characters?

Lee Byeong-hyeon:
When I thought about the story, I wanted to create a typical detective team of five, you know stereotypical, just normal, especially at the script stage. I wasn't sure if I had deep thought on creating strong female characters, if anything it was a cinematic approach and not particularly intentional. With the character of Seon-hee I wanted to create an image that has never really been seen in Korean cinema and make her as strong as detective Jang so when you see them together it comes across as something Korean cinema has rarely shown. The character of Seon-hee was ideal to achieve that. 


Hangul Celluloid:
If you look back to the New Korean Cinema wave of the late 90s and early 2000s, thrillers and dramas telling stories of gangsters vs. cops with comedic undertones were hugely prevalent and popular. In subsequent years that popularity waned somewhat but has seen a resurgence in recent times. Where those classic NKC films part of you background, were you a fan and did such films play a part in your motivation to use the comedic side of the gangster genre for your latest feature?

Lee Byeong-hyeon:
While I didn't rewatch any of those classic NKC wave films as research or anything when making Extreme Job, they did come at a time in my live where I probably watched the most movies. That was the period where many new genres appeared and there was ready investment from big companies and Korean cinema became more vibrant than it had ever been. That was when I was in my late teens and early twenties so, yes, I'm sure I was influenced by them. I wasn't heavily exposed to foreign language films but in a way I was watching a lot of Korean films that were themselves influenced by Western movies. I think Korean films and indeed directors are strongly influenced by foreign cinema in a positive way so regardless of my taste I tried to watch a lot of those films at the time. Extreme Job was simply a story I wanted to tell but subconsciously that influence may indeed have been there.


Voice of London:
First of all, I am a big fan of your work, honestly. What I want to ask is in relation to Korean audience tastes in humour being very different to English comedy because of cultural and environmental differences. Is there any particular brand of humour you want to make a hit or convey to English audiences?   

Lee Byeong-hyeon:
As in my earlier films when making Extreme Job I really didn't consider international or English tastes in humour. Comedy is a genre that doesn't travel all that well because of cultural and linguistic differences. However, I just had a film workshop with a number of students in the UK and there was an incredible reaction to my film and they all said how genuinely funny it was. So, for the first time I'm thinking that my film may be able to travel successfully across borders and certainly for my next project I'll be thinking about that too.


Asian Movie Pulse:
My question rides off the back of the previous one: There is a Universal Pictures re-adaptation of Extreme Job coming out. What will your involvement in that look like an are you pleased with how it will be. How much control will you have over the project?

Lee Byeong-hyeon:
By contract I can't be involved in any sense, it's up to distributors and the producers. I just hope they will adapt my film in a manner suitable to their culture and make a really funny film.


View of the Arts:
In both Twenty and Extreme Job you have quite elaborate, hilarious fight scenes and they are so intricately choreographed I wondered was it ever a challenge to make sure you got the funny moments right and what was it like to film those scenes?

Lee Byeong-hyeon:
I think Twenty and Extreme Job are very different especially in terms of the action sequences. I don't feel such scenes in Twenty are actually action per se, they are much more emotional to me, coming as the characters are becoming adults. They are turning 21 which is I guess the official age of adulthood with 20 being almost a gap year. They have such confidence and pride about entering the real adult world and they are scared too. So that first sequence isn't really action, it's more comedic and emotional and that was what I was focusing on. With the action in Extreme Job what was important was that these ordinary people were turning into superheroes. I wanted to express that most of all to give great satisfaction and a cathartic experience for the audience. This was the first time I actually did a proper action scene and I discovered they require a great deal of preparation time and I'm not actually sure if I'd want to shoot another action scene because it was so hard. It certainly wasn't as much fun as other scenes in the shoot.


Hangul Celluloid:
In watching Extreme Job, from the very outset where a character is being chased leading to a massive pile-up of numerous cars, it's instantly clear that not only is the film explosive and expansive but also hugely expensive. In terms of budget, what sort of constraints did you face and how difficult or easy was it to get the green light for scenes that would make film company executives' eyes water at the thought of the cost alone?

Lee Byeong-hyeon:
Yeah, it was a trial and error project for me because investors saw this film as a comedy film, not an action film, and there were some budget constraints because of that. Because of those financial constraints, the car chasing and crashing scenes were a huge challenge from the very outset. Also, on the day we were shooting it was the hottest day in Korea for something like 110 years. So, if actors were required to run they had to take, like, 30 minute breaks. Physically and literally I wasn't wholly convinced it would be possible at all. I had huge headaches about that. So, we really had to create something out of nothing and for a scene like that a lot of fast cuts are required but we really didn't have enough time to get the full amount of cuts we needed so we kind of had to do a minimalist take overall. As a director looking at the scene now I find it a little clumsy and I'm almost embarrassed to a degree but looking at the intense and superb work the staff and actors did in the scene I also feel very proud. So, I have very mixed feelings about it overall.

Hangul Celluloid:
Personally, I liked that minimalist take and I think those scenes are stronger because of them.


Voice of London:
Is there any particular reason you've chosen to dive into the comedy genre? What does comedy mean to you personally?

Lee Byeong-hyeon:
Simply speaking, I just really like comedy. I like the stories around me, small stories, and for those laughing is a very important part. I don't actually laugh too much in my own life so I really enjoy watching comedy films. It's almost a weapon as a sort of metaphor, the greatest weapon for comedy is great dialogue. I'm just not interested in giant buildings collapsing or tsunamis or people being beaten up, I just feel at home with comedy. I can't even watch horror films because they leave me with aches afterwards.


Asian Movie Pulse:
What inspired Extreme Job? Did you feel the film was a parody or satire of the gangster/cop genre and did you have an role model directors, films or film-makers that you thought of when making it?

Lee Byeong-hyeon:
By Nothing in particular comes to mind, no films specifically. There were loads of films that I watched from the time we talked about earlier, the 90s and early 2000s and, you know, I watched Lethal Weapon etc. but since the film Two Cops I feel like I haven't seen too many good comedy films and a lot of the films that were made back then were kind of bad in my opinion. But watching so many films allowed me to be very selective and be able to spot really good ones and I think that was a really good learning experience. Sure, there were a lot of new genres happening but also some terrible films. Whether consciously or not, I think I made homages to some of the films I watched during that period and they probably influenced me. Watching Extreme Job again I can see some traces of some of those films.


View of the Arts:
This film is hilarious for us to watch as an audience but I wondered if there was a particular member of the cast who was quite funny and would regularly make the other cast members laugh and if there were any funny moments on the set?

Lee Byeong-hyeon:
The grounding character of this film is detective Go, played by actor Ryu Seung-ryong. When his casting was confirmed I felt very confident and all Koreans would agree that he was the bests choice for the role. Again, once he was confirmed for the part I felt I could play and be more experimental with the other characters and even with characters I was less sure of, like detective Ma or Jang, I was pretty sure the film would still work. For example, for a character like Seon-hee you would normally want to cast someone with a really tough persona but I cast this very beautiful woman, but that choice worked because of Ryu Seung-ryong who enabled to entire piece to remain strong. Actor Gong Myung is another example: This was his first film so we were both rather nervous but, again, because of Ryu Seung-ryong I think his character worked as part of the ensemble. The same goes for Lee Dong-hwi - his was a small part but he liked the whole script when he read it and so he was happy and excited to play the part.


Hangul Celluloid:
The buzz around Extreme Job has been insane. It has been so successful it won't even fit in my head. We all talk to a lot of directors each year and independent film-makers almost always talk about the trouble they have even getting their films screened because of the hold large film companies have on the industry. That hasn't been a problem for you - Extreme Job is commercial and has been screened everywhere around Korea, but what are your thoughts on that and new legislation that has been brought in the prevent any film being shown on more than 50% of Korean cinema screens in a single day?

Lee Byeong-hyeon:
I started as an independent film-maker and my first film, Cheer Up Mr Lee, had a very small release - I could only secure 20 cinemas around the country, so I know that situation very well indeed. Extreme Job has I think 1,000 cinemas, maybe even up to 1,500. I'm actually a bit embarrassed about that, saying it out loud. To answer your question in depth would be a long, long discussion but putting it simply I don't think criticising large studios and monopolies within the film industry is enough, I think the gap between what these big companies think and want and the feelings of those making or those who care about smaller independents is so vast that far more would need to be done to make any difference to the situation. In fact, I think some of the biggest companies actually use that huge gap as a marketing strategy and they have no intention of changing it. They are just salarymen, it's just their profession, so I don't believe they actually care. Ultimately, I think there needs to be more Government support and I think smaller, independent film-makers need to have more of an open mind and attitude about how films should be but equally those involved in larger commercial productions such as CJ and the like also need to reflect on what they do. Independents and commercial productions are ultimately connected whether they realise it or not and as such those in the commercial film business should give attention to independents because the overall diversity of Korean cinema is frankly vital for their business too. All these thinks would have to be considered together before the needed change could take place.

On behalf of everyone involved, I'd sincerely like to thank the LKFF and the Korean Cultural Centre UK for allowing us all to interview director Lee Byeong-hyeon at such length.